Useful Tips


Curd is a nutritious food, rich in fats and proteins. While people living in some parts of India eat curd in combination with chapattis, some prefer to mix it with rice and have “curd rice”. What we in India call dahi or curd is referred to as plain “yogurt” in many countries like curd, yogurt is also prepared by the bacterial fermentation of milk. Yogurt is often sold flavoured with fruits, vanilla or chocolate, although unflavoured yogurt is also quite popular in many countries.


Uses of yeast:

  • Since dough making is a precursor to the preparations of cake, dough nuts & buns, yeast cells are considered an important ingredient in the baking industry. For this reason, yeast used in the baking industry is also called baking yeast.
  • In wine making industries called brewries, sugar present in barley and grapes is fermented by yeast to give alcohol and carbon dioxide.
  • Some Indian foodstuf like idli, dosa (popular in south India), and dhokla (popular in Gujarat) make use of the process of fermentation for their preparation. The release of Co2 makes idli & dhokla soft and light and porous. In fact, tiny holes that are seen in idli, dosa and dhokla are nothing but air spaces by the escaping Co2 .

Food preservation :

Any substance that helps preserve food or any other item is known as a preservative. Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food with an aim to stop or slow down its spoilage while maintaining its nutritional value, texture and flavour.


Method of food preservation :


Boiling: Boiling food items can kill any existing microbes. Milk and water are common examples of food item that are boiled to kill microbes.


Dehydration: Since moisture is one of the main requirements for microbial growth, removal of water is an efficient method of food preservation. The process of removal of water from a substance is known as dehydration. Food items such as cereals and pulses are generally dried under the sun to remove the moisture present in them. Spices and dry fruits (such as cashew nuts and raisins) are also preserved in this manner.


Refrigeration & Freezing: Refrigeration at low temperatures and freezing help to preserve food for a longer time because micro organisms such as bacteria and fungi cannot thrive in cold temperatures. When fresh fruits & vegetables are frozen, water present in them also freezes. This helps in preventing microbial reproduction. Food items that can be stored by freezing include meat, milk and vegetables. Frozen food items (such as 'Safal' vegetables) sold in the market are popular in many countries as they provide access to off- season fruits and vegetable, and food items from far-off places.


Canning : Storing cooked and sterilized food in airtight cans is also an effective way of preserving food. Many food items such as jams, vegetables, fresh and even cooked food are canned and sold in the market.


Chemical preservatives: Many chemical help control microbial growth and are used as preservatives. Most chemical preservatives act as antioxidants as they remove oxygen from the food items. This helps in preventing microbial growth. Examples of chemical preservatives are sodium benzoate and potassium meta bisulphite, which are used in squashes, sherbats & ketchups.


Salting: Do you know why salt is added to chips and pickles? In additions to imparting taste and flavour, salt also acts as a food preservative, salting forces microorganisms to loose water by a process known as osmosis, thus preventing their growth and reproduction.


Pasteuration : It is method of preservation of food in which the food items is heated to a high temperature & then rapidly cooled. This help to destroy harmful micro organisms without changing the composition, flavour or nutritive value of the food items. This process is named after the french chemist Louis Pasteur. Who devised it in the 19th century.


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